Give equal quality of finish in manufacturing, on average a non-chrome lined barrel will be more accurate. This is due to variation in plating thickness and the fact that chrome is deposited at a different rate on corners than on flat areas. Now, chrome cleans up much easier and faster than chrome-moly steel. The throat and bore should last 2x longer on average. Stainless steel barrels clean up easier than chrome-moly steel and usually suffer throat erosion at a lesser rate. High end hand lapped barrels are easy to clean no matter what they are made of. My Noveske SS and other handlapped barrel on my shorty cleans up as easy as my FN chrome lined barrel and due to surface finish in both takes a lot longer to get to the same level as fouling as the chrome lined one. My chrome-moly is never cleaned to the point that a patch won't have some color. I did that once and it took so much time it made me not shoot it for six months. Almost clean shoots just as well. My FN barrel is A1 profile and strings as it heats up as does my unknown mfg chrome-moly, both differently. The the high end match ones don't. My best guess being that they were never straightened during production so don't have the residual stresses in them. Noveske makes two chrome lined barrels. One is a light weight and I don't recall what the other is.
On my M16 shorty, I had nothing but trouble from any chrome lined barrel that was not a GI barrel as commercial chambers with chrome lining were all too tight. So I had a used chrome-moly of unknown mfg on it and it went 35-40k rounds just from me before I replaced it due to throat erosion. It still shot 3-4 MOA, which allowed me to hit a man sized ringer at 320 yards , but I really just needed an excuse to reconfigure the gun into something more modern looking. I replaced it with a 12.6" stainless match barrel built by Randal at ar15barrels.com and it runs fine and shoots 2-2.5 MOA with Brit SS109 and 1-1.5 MOA with my generic 62gr reloads that I haven't bothered to try tuning to the gun. I shot a slightly less than 1 MOA 10 shot group with it shooting Black hills 77gr match ammo at 300 yards on a rare dead calm day. The FA trigger sucks or it would probably been better as it took me five tries not to get at least one flier do to me hosing a trigger pull. I want to build an SBR with a good trigger to play with.